Centre for Research Ethics & Bioethics (CRB)

Neuroethics and Neurophilsophy

Our attempts at understanding the human brain raises philosophical, ethical and social issues.

Neuroethics & Philosophy of the Brain

The CRB neuroethics research team is an international, multi-disciplinary group. Our backgrounds allow us to approach these issues from theoretical, philosophical, social, bio-political and clinical perspectives. We collaborate closely with neuroscientists to understand the ethical and philosophical questions that neuroscience brings. In this report, we provide a summary of our research. The report was updated in November 2016.

Download pdf

Neuroethicxs & philosophy of the brain

Understanding the human brain

Neuroscientific research and the increasing use of neurotechnologies raise a number of philosophical, ethical, social, and regulatory issues. The need to examine them has resulted in the development of a new field of research: neuroethics. This field is an interface between the empirical brain sciences, philosophy of mind, moral philosophy, ethics, and psychology, among other disciplines.

In our research, we have identified three main neuroethical approaches. “Neurobioethics” applies ethical theory and reasoning to address the practical issues arising from neuroscientific research and its clinical applications, and the issues raised by public communication of neuroscientific findings and their impact. “Empirical neuroethics” uses empirical data to inform theoretical (e.g., what is moral reasoning) and practical issues (e.g., who is really a moral agent). Finally, “Conceptual neuroethics” uses conceptual analysis to address issues such as how neuroscientific knowledge is constructed and why or how empirical knowledge of the brain can be relevant to philosophical, social, and ethical concerns.


Adequate applied research must be based on solid conceptual work. Our conceptual approach, “fundamental neuroethics,” provides the theoretical framework to analyse practical issues, to examine ethical and neuroscientific  concepts, and to address the impact of neuroscientific findings on society.

Applied research

We investigate applications of neuroscience and ethical assessments of neuroscientific research. Current PhD projects look at how we can use neuroimaging and other methods to understand how the mind works in people who can’t use their behaviour to communicate and what it is like to be unconscious.  

We are also part of the European Community (FET) Flagship Human Brain Project where we look at the ethical and social questions that are raised when we model the human brain, for example by simulation.


Evers, K. (2016). The contribution of neuroethics to international brain research initiatives. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 18(1), 1–2. 

Evers,K.,&Changeux,J.-P.(2016).Proactive epigenesis and ethical innovation: A neuronal hypothesis for the genesis of ethical rules. EMBO Reports, 17(10), 1361–1364 

Sallin K, Lagercrantz H, Evers K, Engström I, Hjern A, Petrovic P, Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?, Front. Behav. Neurosci., 29 January 2016

Farisco, M., Evers, K., & Salles, A. (2016). Big Science, Brain Simulation and Neuroethics. AJOB Neuroscience, 7(1), 28–30 


We have long standing collaborations with Collège de France and the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and the Centro de Investigaciones Filosóficas (CIF) and the Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) in Buenos Aires.

We also work with Universidad Central de ChileComa Research Group in Liege, the Canada Research Chair of Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics in Ottawa, the Neuroethics Group of the Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics of the Georgetown University in Washington DC, the Bioethics Unit of the Italian National Institute of Health in Rome, the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm.

Neuroéthique. Quand la matière s'éveille

Evers K, Neuroéthique. Quand la matière s'éveille, Centre for Research Ethics & Bioethics (CRB) 2014, originally published by Éditions Odile Jacob, Paris, 2009.

The book has sold out and we offer an author version for download. The book has also been published in Spanish (Evers K, Neuroética. Cuando la materia se despierta, Katz editores, 2010).

Download book

Neuroéthique. Quand la matière s'éveille